Aquaponics is a concept of growing plants and fish in one integrated system combining “aquaculture”, which refers to raising fish and “hydroponics”, the growing of plants without soil.
Fish waste is actually an organic food source for the plants and the plants act as a natural filter for the water. The third factor is a nitrifying bacteria called microbes and composting red worms that “convert the ammonia from the fish waste first into nitrites, then into nitrates and the solids into vermicompost that are food for the plants.”
You can make your own mason jar aquaponic garden like this:
It is an indoor gardening system that feeds off waste. “It is a compost bin with a built-in chopping-board lid that can be mounted onto a kitchen table, as well as planters designed to fit into an ordinary bookshelf.”
Once you finish cutting up your vegetables, you slide the trimmings into the bin, where worms process them into humus. To harvest the soil, you shake the grate at the bottom and pull out the drawer underneath; residual water is tapped into a separate transparent tank for use as liquid fertilizer. You then load up your bookshelf planters with soil and seeds, “install some grow lights above, and you’ve got a mini farm powered by your own waste.”